The material of main automobile castings and the forming process of aluminum alloy wheels


[1] The material of main automobile castings The materi […]

[1] The material of main automobile castings
The materials used for automobile castings are mainly cast iron and aluminum alloys, and a small amount of magnesium alloys, copper alloys, and zinc alloys. Magnesium alloy is considered to be a promising material due to its low density, which meets the needs of lightweight cars. However, due to its low strength and low production cost, it will take time for it to be widely used. At present, it is mainly used to make steering wheel, instrument panel, pedals, seats and other parts.

Aluminum alloy castings were originally only used for a few parts such as pistons. With the increasing demand for lightweight cars, the development of aluminum castings is now widely used in car cylinder heads, intake pipes, gearbox housings and other parts, and the application of car cylinder blocks is also increasing. The foundry of Dongfeng Honda Engine Co., Ltd. with an annual output of 50,000 aluminum cylinder blocks has been put into operation in 2001, and a large-scale automobile aluminum cylinder block foundry is also being built in Shenyang. With the development of motorcycles and automobiles in Chongqing, the output of aluminum castings has increased dramatically. Now there are many enterprises with an annual output of 50,000 tons of die castings and 10,000 to 30,000 tons of gravity casting aluminum castings, with a total output of more than 20 tons. million t. The production methods of aluminum castings also include gravity casting, die casting, low pressure casting and other methods.

Cast iron is still the main material for automobile castings, especially for medium and heavy commercial vehicles. Iron castings still account for the vast majority of castings. Light commercial vehicles also use cast iron to reduce costs. Gray cast iron, ductile iron, vermicular iron and chilled iron in cast iron are used in automobile castings with different requirements.
[2], the forming process of aluminum alloy wheels

Aluminum alloy wheels for automobiles are made of aluminum alloys. The forming processes of aluminum alloy wheels often include gravity casting, low pressure casting, squeeze casting, semi-solid casting, forging, spinning and a combination of several processes. Squeeze casting and semi-solid casting technology can improve the metallographic structure of materials and improve the mechanical properties of products. Technology, the aluminum wheel is formed by spinning after forging the billet. The mechanical properties of the aluminum wheel produced are more than 18 higher than that of the cast aluminum wheel of the same specification, and the quality can be reduced by about 20%. The products are mainly large. Specifications, lightweight aluminium wheels and racing aluminium wheels. Recently, a new light-weight aluminum wheel hub with a new concept has appeared - the built-in air aluminum wheel hub, which further reduces the mass of the wheel hub 20 through cavity technology.

Strong rigidity and light weight is the forging method. The production cost of forged wheels is higher than that of casting. It uses large-tonnage forging equipment to press the aluminum alloy into the shape of the wheel hub, without heating the aluminum alloy into a liquid state). Because of the high pressure, the gap between the alloy molecules is reduced, and the interaction force is large, so the entire wheel hub can achieve sufficient stiffness with less material, and the overall weight is lighter. At the same time, there is no liquid-to-solid process, so there are no problems such as pores and blisters generated during casting, and there are fewer mechanical hidden dangers.

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Product description:
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